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Paraceratheriinae

Paraceratheriinae

Additional Functions

Grouping

Belong­ing to

Gaeabionta  ⇒ Domäne: Eukaryota  ⇒ Reich: Animalia  ⇒ Mittelreich: Eumetazoa  ⇒ Klade: Triploblastica  ⇒ Klade: Nephrozoa  ⇒ Abzweig: Deuterostomia  ⇒ Stamm: Chordata  ⇒ Unterstamm: Vertebrata  ⇒ Infrastamm: Gnathostomata  ⇒ Superklasse: Tetrapoda  ⇒ Klasse: Mammalia  ⇒ Unterklasse: Theriiformes  ⇒ Infraklasse: Holotheria  ⇒ Superlegion: Trechnotheria  ⇒ Legion: Cladotheria  ⇒ Sublegion: Zatheria  ⇒ Infralegion: Tribosphenida  ⇒ Superkohorte: Theria  ⇒ Unterklasse: Eutheria  ⇒ Überordnung: Laurasiatheria  ⇒ Ordnung: Perissodactyla  ⇒ Klade: Tapiromorpha  ⇒ Klade: Ceratomorpha  ⇒ Überfamilie: Rhinocerotoidea  ⇒ Familie: Paraceratheriidae

Taxo­nomic seg­ment

Unterfamilie

This mentioned taxonomy is an attempt to make an conclusive assignment from the different classifications of various scientists. Because the taxonomy may change due to the latest investigative methods and other findings, our map is a guide only.

Name from

Corre­spond­ing author (Name, Year)

Osborn, 1923

Other languages

scientific

Paraceratheriinae

Alternative Name

scientific

Indricotheriidae

Borissiak, 1923
Ref.: L. T. Holbrook. 1999. The Pphylogeny and classification of tapiromorph perissodactyls (Mammalia). Cladistics 15(3):331-350

scientific

Indricotheriinae

Borissiak, 1923
Ref.: L. T. Holbrook. 1999. The Pphylogeny and classification of tapiromorph perissodactyls (Mammalia). Cladistics 15(3):331-350

Lebenszeitraum in Million Jahren (Ma)

Start age: 37.2 Ma - End age: 15.97 Ma
Phanerozoic
(Phanerozoikum)
Cenozoic
(Känozoikum)
Neogene
(Neogen)
Paleogene
(Paläogen)
Miocene
(Miozän)
Oligocene
(Oligozän)
Eocene
(Eozän)
Burdigalian
(Burdigalium)
Aquitanian
(Aquitanium)
Chattian
(Chattium)
Rupelian
(Rupelium)
Priabonian
(Priabonium)
Bartonian
(Bartonium)
15.97
20.43
20.43
23.03
23.03
28.4
28.4
33.9
33.9
37
37
40.4

Additional data by PBDB, License: CC BY

Motility: actively mobile
Habit: ground dwelling
Environment: terrestrial
Diet:

browser

Compositon of the remains:

phosphatic

Reference- and Source indication, Literature

Automatic Links to external internet sources (Responsibility is with the operator)

Search for taxonomy at PaleobioDB.org
Search for taxonomy at Fossilworks
Search for taxonomy at The Taxonomicon

Next lower taxonomy level

Gattung: Aralotherium Borissiak, 1939

Gattung: Benaratherium Gabunia, 1955

Gattung: Dzungariotherium Chiu, 1973

Gattung: Juxia Chow & Chiu, 1964

Gattung: Paraceratherium Forster Cooper, 1911

Gattung: Pristinotherium Biriukov, 1953

Gattung: Turpanotherium Qiu & Wang, 2007

Gattung: Urtinotherium Chow & Chiu, 1963

Refresh list

Actuality: 30. Jan 2023 - 03:00:59

On the same taxonomic level (siblings) (Count: 1)

Taxonomic assignment (27)


 
 
Eukaryota (Domäne)

 
 
 
Animalia (Reich)

 
 
 
 
Eumetazoa (Mittelreich)

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Nephrozoa (Klade)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deuterostomia (Abzweig)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chordata (Stamm)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vertebrata (Unterstamm)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gnathostomata (Infrastamm)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tetrapoda (Superklasse)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mammalia (Klasse)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Theriiformes (Unterklasse)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Holotheria (Infraklasse)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trechnotheria (Superlegion)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cladotheria (Legion)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zatheria (Sublegion)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tribosphenida (Infralegion)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Theria (Superkohorte)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eutheria (Unterklasse)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laurasiatheria (Überordnung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perissodactyla (Ordnung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tapiromorpha (Klade)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ceratomorpha (Klade)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhinocerotoidea (Überfamilie)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paraceratheriinae (Unterfamilie)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aralotherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benaratherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Juxia (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paraceratherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pristinotherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turpanotherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Urtinotherium (Gattung)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Refresh list

Actuality: 30. Jan 2023 - 03:00:57

References by PBDB, License: CC BY

  • Y.-X. Li, 2017 - New fossils of paraceratheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Early Oligocene of the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province, China - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (56), 367-381 (journal article, English)
  • H. Wang, 2016 - Earliest known unequivocal rhinocerotoid sheds new light on the origin of Giant Rhinos and phylogeny of early rhinocerotoids - Scientific Reports (6), 39607-9 (journal article, English)
  • Z. Qiu, 2007 - Paracerathere Fossils of China - Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series C (193), 1-396 (journal article, English)
  • Z.-X. Qiu, 2004 - Indricotheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from Oligocene in Linxia Basin, Gansu, China - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (42), 177-192 (journal article, Chinese)
  • J. Ye, 2003 - Discovery of Paraceratherium in the northern Junggar Basin of Xinjiang - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (41), 220-229 (journal article, English)
  • L. T. Holbrook, 1999 - The Pphylogeny and classification of tapiromorph perissodactyls (Mammalia) - Cladistics (15), 331-350 (journal article, English)
  • S. G. Lucas, 1996 - Fossil mammals and the age of the Changxindian Formation, Northeastern China - Palaeo Vertebrata (25), 133-140 (journal article, English)
  • S. G. Lucas, 1996 - The giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium from the late Oligocene at Aktau Mountain, southeastern Kazakhstan, and its biochronological significance - Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte (1996), 539-548 (journal article, English)
  • M. Fortelius, 1993 - The largest land mammal ever imagined - Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (108), 85-101 (journal article, English)
  • T. Qi, 1989 - A New Species of Dzungariotherium (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (27), 301-305 (journal article, English)
  • T. Qi, 1989 - A New Species of Juxia (Perissodactyla), Nei Mongol - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (27), 205-208 (journal article, Chinese)
  • D. R. Prothero, 1989 - Origin and evolution of the Perissodactyla: Summary and Synthesis - The Evolution of Perissodactyls (), 530-529 (book/book chapter, English)
  • R. L. Carroll, 1988 - - Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (), 1-698 (compendium, English)
  • Y.-j. Tang, 1978 - [New materials of Oligocene mammalian fossils from Qujing Basin, Yunnan] - Professional Papers of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology (7), 75-79 (journal article, Chinese)
  • J. Wang, 1976 - A New Genus of Forstercooperiinae from the Late Eocene of Tongbo, Henan - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (14), 104-111 (journal article, Chinese)
  • C.-S. Chiu, 1973 - A New Genus of Giant Rhinoceros from Oligocene of Dzungaria, Sinkiang - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (11), 182-191 (journal article, Chinese)
  • L. Gabunia, 1966 - Sur les Mammifères oligocènes du Caucase - Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France (7), 857-869 (journal article, French)
  • M. Chow, 1964 - An Eocene Giant Rhinoceros - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (8), 264-267 (journal article, English)
  • M. Chow, 1963 - New genus of Giant Rhinoceros from Oligocene of Inner Mongolia - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (7), 230-239 (journal article, Chinese)
  • C.-S. Chiu, 1962 - Giant Rhinoceros from Loping, Yunnan, and Discussion on the Taxonomic Characters of Indricotherium grangeri - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (6), 57-71 (journal article, Chinese)
  • M. Chow, 1958 - Some Oligocene Mammals from Lunan, Yunnan - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (2), 263-267 (journal article, Chinese)
  • E. I. Belyaeva, 1948 - - Catalogue of Tertiary Fossil Sites of the Land Mammals in the U.S.S.R. (), - (book/book chapter, English)
  • H. F. Osborn, 1923 - Baluchitherium grangeri, a giant hornless rhinoceros from Mongolia - American Museum Novitates (78), 1-15 (journal article, English)
  • C. Forster-Cooper, 1913 - Correction of generic name (Thaumastotherium to Baluchitherium) - Annals and Magazine of Natural History (12), 504- (journal article, English)
  • C. Forster-Cooper, 1913 - Thaumastotherium osbosni, a new genus of perissodactyl from the Upper Oligocene deposits of the Bugti Hills of Baluchistan. Preliminary notice - Annals and Magazine of Natural History (12), 376-381 (journal article, English)