† Hueneosauria


Additional Functions


Belong­ing to

Gaeabionta  ⇒ Domäne: Eukaryota  ⇒ Reich: Animalia  ⇒ Mittelreich: Eumetazoa  ⇒ Klade: Triploblastica  ⇒ Klade: Nephrozoa  ⇒ Abzweig: Deuterostomia  ⇒ Stamm: Chordata  ⇒ Unterstamm: Vertebrata  ⇒ Infrastamm: Gnathostomata  ⇒ Superklasse: Tetrapoda  ⇒ Serie: Amniota  ⇒ Klade: Sauropsida  ⇒ Infraklasse: Eureptilia  ⇒ ohne Rang: Romeriida  ⇒ Unterklasse: Diapsida  ⇒ Klade: Ichthyosauromorpha  ⇒ Klade: Ichthyosauriformes  ⇒ Unterklasse: Ichthyopterygia  ⇒ Klade: Eoichthyosauria  ⇒ Ordnung: Ichthyosauria

Taxo­nomic seg­ment


This mentioned taxonomy is an attempt to make an conclusive assignment from the different classifications of various scientists. Because the taxonomy may change due to the latest investigative methods and other findings, our map is a guide only.

Name from

Corre­spond­ing author (Name, Year)

Maisch & Matzke, 2000

Other languages



Lebenszeitraum in Million Jahren (Ma)

Start age: 247.2 Ma - End age: 89.8 Ma
Upper/Late Cretaceous
Lower/Early Cretaceous
Upper/Late Jurassic
Middle Jurassic
Lower/Early Jurassic
Upper/Late Triassic
Middle Triassic

Additional data by PBDB, License: CC BY

Motility: actively mobile
Environment: marine
Compositon of the remains:


Reference- and Source indication, Literature



  • M. W. Maisch & A. T. Matzke (2000): The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298:1-159.

Automatic Links to external internet sources (Responsibility is with the operator)

Search for taxonomy at
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Next lower taxonomy level

On the same taxonomic level (siblings) (Count: 18)

Taxonomic assignment (165)

References by PBDB, License: CC BY

  • N. Klein, 2020 - A new cymbospondylid ichthyosaur (Ichthyosauria) from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Augusta Mountains, Nevada, USA - Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (), - (journal article, English)
  • B. C. Moon, 2017 - A new phylogeny of ichthyosaurs (Reptilia: Diapsida) - Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (), - (journal article, English)
  • V. Fischer, 2014 - Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary - Naturwissenschaften (101), 1027-1040 (journal article, English)
  • P. S. Druckenmiller, 2014 - An Upper Triassic (Norian) ichthyosaur (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia) from northern Alaska and dietary insight based on gut contents - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (34), 1460-1465 (journal article, English)
  • P. Yang, 2013 - A new species of Qianichthyosaurus (reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from Xingyi Fauna (Ladinian, Middle Triassic) of Guizhou - Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (49), 1002-1008 (journal article, English)
  • V. Fischer, 2013 - A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs - Biology Letters (98), 20130- (journal article, English)
  • J. Liu, 2013 - The first specimen of the Middle Triassic Pharalodon atavus (Ichthyosauria: Mixosauridae) from South China, showing postcranial anatomy and peri-Tethyan distribution - Palaeontology (), - (journal article, English)
  • C. Ji, 2013 - A new juvenile specimen of Guanlingasaurus (Ichthyosauria, Shastasauridae) from the Upper Triassic of southwestern China - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (33), 340-348 (journal article, English)
  • E. E. Maxwell, 2013 - Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblages of the Svalbard archipelago: a reassessment of taxonomy and distribution - GFF [Journal of the Geological Society of Sweden] (135), 85-94 (journal article, English)
  • N. B. Fröbisch, 2013 - Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (110), 1393-1397 (journal article, English)
  • X.-H. Chen, 2010 - A new species of Mixosaurus (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Middle Triassic of Pu'an, Guizhou, China - Acta Palaeontologica Sinica (), 251-260 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2010 - Phylogeny, systematics, and origin of the Ichthyosauria - the state of the art - Palaeodiversity (3), 151-214 (journal article, English)
  • Q.-H. Shang, 2009 - On the occurrence of the ichthyosaur Shastasaurus in the Guanling biota (Late Triassic), Guizhou, China - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (47), 178-193 (journal article, English)
  • X.-H. Chen, 2007 - A new species of Callawayia (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Late Triassic in Guanling, Guizhou - Geology in China (34), 974-982 (journal article, Chinese)
  • N. B. Fröbisch, 2006 - A new species of Cymbospondylus (Diapsida, Ichthyosauria) from the Middle Triassic of Nevada and a re-evaluation of the skull osteology of the genus - Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (147), 515-538 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2006 - Cranial osteology of Guizhouicthyosaurus tangae (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Upper Triassic of China - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (26), 588-597 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2006 - The braincase of Phantomosaurus neubigi (Sander, 1997), an unusual ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of Germany - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (26), 598-607 (journal article, English)
  • D.-Y. Jiang, 2006 - A new mixosaurid ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of China - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (26), 60-69 (journal article, English)
  • D.-Y. Jiang, 2005 - A basal mixosaurid ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of China - Palaeontology (48), 869-882 (journal article, English)
  • L. Schmitz, 2004 - New Mixosauridae (Ichthyosauria) from the Middle Triassic of the Augusta Moutnains (Nevada, USA) and their implications for mixosaur taxonomy - Palaeontographica Abteilung A (270), 133-162 (journal article, English)
  • E. L. Nicholls, 2004 - Giant ichthyosaurs of the Triassic - a new species of Shonisaurus from the Pardonet Formation (Norian: Late Triassic) of British Columbia - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (24), 838-849 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2003 - Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part X: The Lower Triassic Merriamosaurus from Spitzbergen - additional data on its anatomy and phylogenetic position - Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen (227), 93-137 (journal article, English)
  • C. McGowan, 2003 - Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie / Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology Teil 8 / Part 8 Ichthyopterygia - (), 1-175 (book, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2002 - Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part IX. The first associated skeletal remains of Merriamosaurus n. g. (Ichthyosauria, Lower Triassic) and their bearing on the systematic position of the Omphalosauria - Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen (226), 59-94 (journal article, English)
  • J. J. Sepkoski, Jr., 2002 - A compendium of fossil marine animal genera - Bulletins of American Paleontology (363), 1-560 (serial monograph, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2001 - Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part VIII. A redescription of Phalarodon major (von Huene, 1916) and the composition and phylogeny of the Mixosauridae - Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen (220), 431-447 (journal article, English)
  • E. L. Nicholls, 2001 - A new genus of ichthyosaur from the Late Triassic Pardonet Formation of British Columbia: bridging the Triassic-Jurassic gap - Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (38), 983-1002 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 2000 - The Ichthyosauria - Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, Serie B (298), 1-159- (journal article, English)
  • R. Motani, 1999 - Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (19), 473-496 (journal article, English)
  • C. Li, 1999 - Ichthyosaur from Guizhou, China - Chinese Science Bulletin (44), 1329-1333 (journal article, English)
  • M. W. Maisch, 1998 - Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part III: a crested predatory mixosaurid from the Middle Triassic of the Germanic Basin - Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen (209), 105-134 (journal article, English)
  • W. Brinkmann, 1998 - Sangiorgiosaurus n. g. - a new mixosaur genus (Mixosauridae, Ichthyosauria) with crushing teeth from the Grenzbitumenzone (Middle Triassic) of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland, Canton Ticino) - Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie Abhandlungen (207), 125-144 (journal article, German)
  • C. Mcgowan, 1994 - A new species of Shastasaurus (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Triassic of British Columbia: the most complete exemplar of the genus - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (14), 168-179 (journal article, English)
  • J. M. Mazin, 1993 - Palaeobiogeography of the Early and Late Triassic ichthyopterygia - Paleontologia Lombarda (2), 93-107 (journal article, English)
  • P. M. Sander, 1989 - The large ichthyosaur Cymbospondylus buchseri, sp. nov. from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland), with a survey of the genus in Europe - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (9), 163-173 (journal article, English)
  • R. L. Carroll, 1988 - - Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (), 1-698 (compendium, English)
  • Z.-M. Dong, 1972 - An ichthyosaur fossil from the Qomolangma Feng (Mt. Everest) region - Gu ji zhui dong wu yu gu ren lei yan jiu suo ji kan (9), 7-10 (journal article, Chinese)
  • O. Kuhn, 1971 - - Die Saurier der deutschen Trias [Reptiles of the German Triassic] (), 1-105 (book, German)
  • C.-C. Young, 1965 - On a revised determination of a fossil reptile from Jenhui, Kweichou with note on a new ichthyosaur probably from China - Vertebrata PalAsiatica (9), 368-375 (journal article, Chinese)
  • C. Rusconi, 1942 - Nuevo genero de ictiosaurio Argentino [New genus of Argentinean ichthyosaur] - Boletin Paleontológico de Buenos Aires (13), 1-2 (journal article, Spanish)
  • O. P. Hay, 1930 - - Second Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America (390), 1-1074 (book, English)
  • J. C. Merriam, 1908 - Triassic Ichthyosauria - Memoirs of the University of California (1), 1-155 (journal article, English)
  • J. C. Merriam, 1902 - Triassic Ichthyopterygia from California and Nevada - University of California Publications Bulletin of the Department of Geology (3), 63-108 (journal article, English)
  • E. Fraas, 1896 - Die Schwäbischen Trias-Saurier nach dem Material der Kgl. Naturalien-Sammlung in Stuttgart zusammengestellt [Swabian Triassic dinosaurs based on the material in the Royal Natural History Collection compiled in Stuttgart] - Festgabe des Königlichen Naturalien-Cabinets In Stuttgart zur 42 Versammlung der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft in Stuttgart, August 1896. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlag-handlung (E. Koch), Stuttgart (), 1-18 (serial monograph, German)
  • J. C. Merriam, 1895 - On some Reptilian Remains from the Triassic of Northern California - American Journal of Science (50), 55- (journal article, English)
  • F. Bassani, 1886 - Sui fossili e sull'età degli schisti bituminosi triasici di Besano in Lombardia - Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali (29), 15-72 (journal article, Italian)
  • H.-E. Sauvage, 1883 - Recherches sur les reptiles trouvés dans l'étage rhétien des environs d'Autun [Research on the reptiles found in the Rhaetian stage of the environs of Autun] - Annales des Sciences Géologiques (14), 1-44 (journal article, French)
  • I. W. Hulke, 1873 - Memorandum on some fossil vertebrate remains collected by the Swedish expeditions to Spitzbergen in 1864 and 1868 - Bihang Till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar (1), 1-11 (journal article, English)
  • J. Leidy, 1868 - Notice of some reptilian remains from Nevada - Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (109), 177-178 (journal article, English)


GUSID (Global unique identifier short form) OAv6dEr8FUuko351g0d0HA
GUID (Global unique identifier) 74FA0B38-FC4A-4B15-A4A3-7E758347741C
Database ID 5763