'._('einklappen').'
 

(Weitergeleitet von Geologisches Portrait/Kreide)


Kreide / Cretaceous

Erde-Kreide
Erde-Kreide

Erde in der Kreidezeit

Mineralienatlas
Wissower Klinken, Rügen
Wissower Klinken, Rügen

Wissower Klinken auf Rügen im Jahr 2004 (vor dem Abbruch am 25.02.2005)

hatiras
Kreidefelsen auf Rügen
Kreidefelsen auf Rügen
Susanne und Frank Wenzel
Die weißen Klippen von Dover
Die weißen Klippen von Dover
Public Domain
ENCI Maastricht
ENCI Maastricht

Mergelgrube ENCI Maastricht, Niederlande.

mkannenberg
Tagesbaustelle, südliches Münsterland
Tagesbaustelle, südliches Münsterland

Münsterländer Kreidebecken

Grenzton
Hemipneustes
Hemipneustes

Hemipneustes, Niederlande

wiwifossilien
Zuercherella zuercheri (JACOB 1906)
Zuercherella zuercheri (JACOB 1906)

Zuercherella zuercheri JACOB 1906; Durchmesser 9 cm, Schalenerhaltung; Unterkreide, Ober-Aptium. Zone des Tropaeum drewi; Fundort: Rothenberge bei Wettringen/Nordrhein-Westfalen

zuercherella
Squalicorax pristodontus (AGASSIZ, 1843)
Squalicorax pristodontus (AGASSIZ, 1843)

Fundort: Khouribga (Marokko); Alter: Kreide - Obere; Länge/Höhe: 22mm/20mm

mkannenberg
Pararhincodon aff lehmanni
Pararhincodon aff lehmanni

Pararhincodon, Libanon

AZRAEL
Dinosaurierspuren
Dinosaurierspuren

Trittsiegel eines Dinosauriers, Arizona, USA

Jon Sullivan
Verkieseltes Laubholz
Verkieseltes Laubholz

Verkieseltes Laubholz, Hauset-Bingeberg, Durchmesser ca. 18 cm

Andreas W.
Saurierei
Saurierei

Hadrosaurus, Provinz Henan, China

Grenzton

Alter: 65,5 +/- 0,3 - 144,5 +/- 4,0 Mio. Jahre

Kreide oder Kreidezeit nennt man die Zeitperiode der geologischen Zeitachse, die den obersten Teil des Mesozoikum bildet. Als solche folgt sie dem Jura und beginnt vor ca. 144,5 Mio. Jahren. Die Kreide endet vor ca. 65,5 Mio. Jahren mit dem Übergang zum Paläogen. Die Kreide wird grob in Unterkreide und Oberkreide geteilt. Diese gliedern sich wieder in weitere Stufen. Für eine genaue Unterteilung der Kreide siehe die Geologische Zeittafel.

Während sich der Übergang vom Jura zur Kreide ohne außergewöhnliches Artensterben oder einer auffallend großen Zunahme der Arten vollzog, ist die obere Grenze der Kreide scharf durch die so genannte K/P-Grenze (früher als K/T-Grenze bezeichnet) gekennzeichnet, die bekannteste der großen phanerozoischen Massenaussterben. Als am wahrscheinlichsten gilt, dass ein großer Meteoriteneinschag für dieses Massenaussterben verantwortlich ist.

Den wohl berühmtesten Aufschluss von Schichten der Kreide bilden die weißen Klippen von Dover an der englischen Kanalküste. In Deutschland findet man Gesteine der Kreide im Raum Hannover, in Lägerdorf bei Itzehoe, nördlich des Harzes, im Teuteburger Wald (Externsteine), der westfälischen Bucht, im Raum Aachen, auf der Insel Rügen, östlich der fränkischen Alb, am Alpen-Nordrand sowie in der Umgebung von Dresden (Elbsandsteingebirge). In den benachbarten Niederlanden ist der südlimburgische Raum durch die Kreide geprägt. Ebenso Teile im Osten Belgiens.

Namensgebung

Der Begriff Kreide wurde 1815 vom deutschen Geologen Karl Georg von Raumer eingeführt. Namensgebend waren die in der Kreidezeit entstandenen Schreibkreidevorkommen auf der Insel Rügen.

Paläogeographie

Während der Kreide dauerte der Zerfall von Pangäa weiter an. Der südliche Nordatlantik weitete sich durch die Spreizung des Meeresbodens aus und hatte am Ende der Kreide schon eine Breite von ca. 4.000 km. In der Unterkreide kam es zum kontinentalen Rifting zwischen Südamerika und Afrika unter Bildung von Plateaubasalten (Parana-Becken). Im Hauterive bis Alb entstand ein schmales Becken ohne Verbindung zum Nordatlantik. Im Cenoman kam es schließlich zur vollständigen Trennung von Afrika und Südamerika unter Bildung des Südatlantiks.

Klima

In der Kreide herrschte überwiegend ein warmes und tropisches Klima. Die Polkappen waren abgeschmolzen, wodurch der Meeresspiegel weit höher als zur heutigen Zeit lag und weite Teile der kontinentalen Erdkruste von flachen Meeren (Schelfmeeren) bedeckt waren, in denen die Überreste des dort auftretenden Nanoplanktons im Laufe der Mio. Jahre die typischen Kalk- und Mergelablagerungen der Kreide abgelagert haben.

Flora

In der Unterkreide waren Baumfarne, Ginkgos, Nadelbäume und Farne die vorherrschenden Pflanzen. Es entwickelten sich jedoch recht schnell die ersten strauchigen Blütenpflanzen. So stellten im oberen Teil der Oberkreide (Campan) viele Laubbäume wie Ahorn, Eiche oder Walnuss eine Konkurrenz zu den Nadelbäumen dar.

Fauna

In der Fauna der Kreide spielten die landlebenden Säugetiere nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Dominiert wurde die Tierwelt durch archosaurische Reptilien, insbesondere den Dinosauriern. Die Insekten entwickelten während der Kreide große Artenvielfalt. In der Unterkreide wurden die Meere von marinen Reptilien, wie den Ichthysauriern beherrscht. Diese wurden in der Oberkreide durch Mosasaurier verdrängt. Daneben lebten in den Meeren Rochen, moderne Haie und Knochenfische. Schwärme von Baculiten bevölkerten das Meer (siehe auch die Übersicht der Lebewesen zur Kreidezeit).

Die belebte Welt änderte sich mit dem Ende der Kreidezeit dramatisch. Beim bereits angesprochenen Massenaussterben starben etwa 50% aller Tierarten und 25% der bekannten Familien aus. Während die Pflanzenwelt nur geringe Verluste hinnehmen musste, traf es die Meeresbewohner am stärksten. Ammoniten und Belemniten verschwanden gänzlich, ebenso alle Meeresreptilien, ausgenommen Schildkröten und Krokodile. An Land waren die Dinosaurier die bekanntesten Lebewesen, die dem Massenaussterben zum Opfer fielen.



Aktuelle Zuordnung (Kreide- Arten,Gattungen)

Abelisaurus (70.6, 70.6); Abelisaurus comahuensis (83.5, 70.6); Acanthoceras (99.6, 93.5); Acanthoceras jukesbrownei (99.6, 93.5); Acanthoceras rhotomagensis (99.6, 93.5); Acanthodiscus (136.4, 130); Acanthodiscus radiatus (136.4, 130); Acanthodiscus subradiatus (139.8, 132.9); Acanthorhynchia (168.3, 122.46); Acanthoscaphites (72.1, 66); Acanthoscaphites tridens (66, 66); Acesta (163.5, 0.0117); Achelousaurus (72.1, 70.6); Achelousaurus horneri (72.1, 70.6); Acipenser albertensis (70.6, 61.7); Acompsoceras (112, 93.5); Acompsoceras bochumensis (99.6, 93.5); Acristavus (70.6, 70.6); Acristavus gagslarsoni (70.6, 70.6); Acrodus (295.5, 56); Acrosalenia (183, 136.4); Acrostichopteris (208.5, 112.03); Acrostichopteris longipennis (112.03, 112.03); Acroteuthis (139.8, 125); Acteon (136.4, 0.0117); Actinocamax (93.5, 70.6); Actinoceramus (112, 89.3); Actinoceramus concentricus (99.6, 85.8); Actinoceramus fasciatus (85.8, 83.5); Actinoceramus radians (89.3, 83.5); Acutostrea (93.9, 23.03); Acutostrea incurva (93.9, 66); Adelopneustes boehmi (70.6, 61.7); Adelopneustes montainvillensis (70.6, 61.7); Adocus (125.45, 23.03); Adocus beatus (70.6, 61.7); Aeger (242, 93.9); Aegocrioceras (130, 129.4); Aegyptosaurus (136.4, 93.5); Agerostrea (72.1, 3.6); Agerostrea ungulata (70.6, 3.6); Agomphus (72.1, 55.8); Agomphus pectoralis (72.1, 55.8); Ajancingenia (83.5, 65.5); Ajancingenia yanshini (72.1, 72.1); Albertaceratops (85.8, 70.6); Albertaceratops nesmoi (70.6, 70.6); Albertosaurus (72.1, 66); Albertosaurus sarcophagus (72.1, 66); Alethopteris (323.2, 122.46); Allocrioceras (99.6, 85.8); Allocrioceras angustum (89.3, 89.3); Allognathosuchus (70.6, 33.9); Almucidaris durhami (70.6, 65.5); Alphadon (93.9, 47.8); Alphadon halleyi (83.6, 66); Amaea (112.03, 0.0117); Amiopsis (130, 125); Amphidonte (161.2, 65.5); Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) reticulata (99.6, 93.5); Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) sigmoidea (164.7, 61.7); Ampullina (242, 3.6); Amylodon (70.6, 41.3); Anaethalion (150.8, 109); Anagaudryceras (109, 66); Anagaudryceras lueneburgense (70.6, 66); Anahamulina (99.6, 65.5); Anahoplites (109, 93.9); Anapachydiscus (83.6, 66); Anatotitan (66, 66); Anchura (168.3, 56); Ancyloceras (168.3, 70.6); Ancyloceras matheronianum (125, 112); Angulithes (93.5, 89.3); Anhanguera (109, 99.6); Anhanguera blittersdorffi (109, 109); Anhanguera piscator (109, 109); Anhanguera santanae (109, 109); Anisoceras (112, 89.3); Anisoceras armatum (99.6, 93.5); Anisoceras plicatile (99.6, 93.5); Ankylosaurus (70.6, 65.5); Ankylosaurus magniventris (66, 66); Anomoeodus (109, 66); Anomoeodus angustus (99.6, 89.3); Anomoeodus münsteri (99.6, 89.3); Anomoeodus scobiculatus (99.6, 89.3); Anomotodon (89.8, 15.97); Anomotodon plicatus (83.6, 66); Anopaea (144.5, 99.6); Antedon fischeri (99.6, 93.5); Antedon rosaceum (99.6, 89.3); Antedon schlueterianus (99.6, 93.5); Aphrocallistes (105.3, 7.246); Aphrocallistes alveolites (83.6, 66); Araripichthys (113, 89.3); Archaefructus (100.5, 100.5); Archaefructus liaoningensis (100.5, 100.5); Archaeolamna (100.5, 70.6); Archaeolamna kopingensis (93.5, 70.6); Archaeopteryx (145, 125.45); Arcoscalpellum (113, 23.03); Arctica (164.7, 0.0117); Arctostrea (166.1, 66); Argentinosaurus (89.8, 89.8); Argentinosaurus huinculensis (89.8, 89.8); Aspidastraea (89.8, 66); Aspideretoides (72.1, 55.8); Aspidiscus (93.9, 93.5); Aspidiscus cristatus (93.9, 93.5); Aspidorhynchus (166.1, 139.8); Asteracanthus (254.17, 66); Astropecten (164.7, 2.588); Athleta (66, 2.588); Athrotaxis (109, 0.126); Atractosteus (70.6, 0.0117); Atreta (232, 3.6); Atreta nilssoni (93.9, 66); Aulacoteuthis (125.45, 125); Aulaxinia (113, 66); Aulaxinia sulcifera (112, 65.5); Avaceratops (83.5, 70.6); Avaceratops lammersi (70.6, 70.6); Avisaurus (70.6, 66); Avisaurus gloriae (70.6, 70.6); Baculites (136.4, 61.6); Baculites anceps (83.6, 66); Baculites brevicosta (85.8, 85.8); Baculites incurvatus (85.8, 70.6); Baculites vertebralis (70.6, 66); Baculites yokoyamai (89.3, 83.6); Baena (72.1, 37.2); Baiera (295, 93.5); Balanocidaris (232, 70.6); Balanocrinus (242, 15.97); Bambiraptor (72.1, 70.6); Baryonyx (130, 125); Baryonyx walkeri (130, 125); Belemnella (66, 66); Belemnitella (83.5, 66); Belemnopsis (175.6, 112); Belonostomus (150.8, 65.5); Belonostomus longirostris (83.5, 66); Bernissartia (150.8, 66); Bernissartia fagesii (144.5, 125); Berriasella (145, 129.4); Beudanticeras (112, 99.6); Beudanticeras beudanti (112, 99.6); Biformoceramus (93.5, 70.6); Biformoceramus cordiinitialis (85.8, 83.5); Biradiolites (93.9, 66); Bistahieversor (70.6, 70.6); Bistahieversor sealeyi (83.5, 70.6); Borealosuchus (70.6, 46.2); Borealosuchus formidabilis (70.6, 55.8); Borealosuchus sternbergii (66, 63.3); Boremys (72.1, 63.3); Bositra (251.3, 99.6); Bottosaurus (66, 55.8); Bottosaurus harlani (66, 61.7); Bourgueticrinus (89.8, 33.9); Brachidontes (99.6, 89.3); Brachidontes lineatus (99.6, 89.3); Brachidontes striatocostatus (99.6, 89.3); Brachyceratops (83.5, 66); Brachychampsa (89.3, 63.3); Brachychampsa montana (70.6, 66); Brachylophosaurus (72.1, 66); Brachylophosaurus canadensis (72.1, 70.6); Brachyphyllum (279.3, 66); Brancasaurus (140.2, 140.2); Brancasaurus brancai (140.2, 140.2); Brancoceras (112, 99.6); Brancoceras (Eubrancoceras) aegoceratoides (112, 99.6); Brasenites (99.6, 99.6); Bulla (164.7, 0); Caenagnathus (70.6, 66); Calamopleurus (109, 100.5); Calliderma (99.6, 89.3); Calliderma lindneri (93.5, 89.3); Calliderma ottoi (99.6, 93.5); Callopegma (155.7, 66); Callopegma acaule (83.6, 66); Callopterus (150.8, 122.46); Calycoceras (99.6, 89.3); Calycoceras (Gentoniceras) gentoni (99.6, 93.5); Calycoceras (Newboldiceras) asiaticum (99.6, 93.5); Calycoceras (Proeucalycoceras) guerangeri (99.6, 93.5); Calycoceras navicularis (99.6, 93.5); Camarasaurus (152.1, 93.9); Camerogalerus (99.6, 66); Campanile (93.5, 0.781); Camptonectes (265.8, 7.246); Camptonectes lens (167.7, 140.2); Carcharias (125, 0); Carcharias aasenensis (83.5, 70.6); Carcharias striatula (100.5, 100.5); Carcharodontosaurus (99.6, 93.5); Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis (93.9, 93.9); Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (125.45, 93.5); Cardiaster (93.5, 53); Carinodens (66, 66); Carinodens belgicus (66, 66); Cataceramus (85.8, 65.5); Catapleura (70.6, 47.8); Catapleura repanda (70.6, 47.8); Caturus (252.17, 99.6); Caudipteryx (122.46, 122.46); Caudipteryx dongi (122.46, 122.46); Caudipteryx zoui (122.46, 122.46); Cearadactylus (109, 109); Cearadactylus atrox (109, 109); Celastrophyllum (100.5, 70.6); Celastrus (66, 5.333); Cellepora (232, 2.588); Centrophoroides (70.6, 66); Centrosaurus (72.1, 66); Ceramornis (66, 66); Ceramornis major (66, 66); Cerasinops (72.1, 72.1); Cerasinops hodgskissi (72.1, 72.1); Cercidiphyllum (66, 2.588); Champsosaurus (89.8, 55.8); Cheloniceras (125, 112); Cheloniceras cornuelianus (125, 112); Chirostenotes (70.6, 66); Chirostenotes pergracilis (70.6, 70.6); Chitracephalus (125, 113); Chitracephalus dumonii (125, 113); Chlamys (203.6, 0); Chomataster (99.6, 89.3); Chomataster coombii (93.5, 89.3); Cidaris (242, 0.0117); Cimexomys (83.5, 63.3); Cimexomys minor (66, 63.3); Cimolestes (70.6, 56); Cimolestes incisus (66, 56); Cimolichthys (93.5, 66); Cimolichthys nepaholica (93.5, 70.6); Cimolithium (112.03, 89.3); Cimolopteryx (66, 66); Cimolopteryx maxima (66, 66); Cimolopteryx rara (66, 66); Cimomia (99.6, 23.03); Cinnamomum (93.5, 2.588); Citipati (72.1, 72.1); Cladoceramus (85.8, 83.5); Cladocyclus (109, 93.5); Cladophlebis (279.3, 66); Cladophlebis oblongifolia (112.03, 112.03); Cladophlebis oerstedi (112.03, 100.5); Cnemidiastrum (164.7, 7.246); Coelodus (167.7, 65.5); Coeloptychium (112, 65.5); Coelurus (152.1, 112.03); Collignoniceras (89.8, 89.3); Collignoniceras carolinum (89.3, 89.3); Collignoniceras woolgari (93.5, 89.3); Collyrites (164.7, 129.4); Coloborhynchus (132.9, 93.9); Comatulina (130, 125); Comptoniaster (93.5, 85.8); Comptoniaster michaelisi (93.5, 85.8); Coniopteris (252.17, 93.9); Coniopteris hymenophylloides (174.1, 93.9); Conotomaria (155.7, 59.2); Conulus (140.2, 65.5); Coraster (70.6, 56); Cordiceramus cordiformis (89.3, 83.5); Corynella (268.8, 72.1); Corythosaurus (72.1, 70.6); Corythosaurus casuarius (72.1, 70.6); Crassatella vadosa (72.1, 56); Crateraster (99.6, 65.5); Crateraster quinqueloba (99.6, 89.3); Credneria (99.6, 83.5); Cremnoceramus (89.3, 65.5); Cremnoceramus rotundatus (89.3, 85.8); Cremnoceramus waltersdorfensis (93.5, 85.8); Cretolamna (93.5, 48.6); Cretolamna appendiculata (99.6, 93.5); Cretoxyrhina (93.9, 66); Cretoxyrhina mantelli (93.5, 66); Cribrospongia (242, 93.5); Crioceratites (136.4, 99.6); Crioceratites nolani (136.4, 130); Crocodilus humilis (72.1, 70.6); Ctenoides (152.1, 0.0117); Ctenostreon (203.6, 136.4); Cubitostrea digitalina (99.6, 5.333); Cunnolites (113, 33.9); Cunnolites gosavicus (72.1, 72.1); Cyathocidaris (113, 66); Cyathophora (168.3, 83.6); Cyathophora bourgueti (168.3, 109); Cycadeoidea (237, 93.5); Cycadolepis (228, 93.9); Cyclaster (83.5, 0); Cyclobatis (93.9, 93.9); Cyclobatis major (93.9, 93.9); Cyclothyris (99.6, 93.5); Cyclothyris difformis (99.6, 93.5); Cyclurus (89.8, 40.4); Cyclurus fragosus (66, 63.3); Cylindroteuthis (189.6, 125); Cymatoceras (150.8, 23.03); Cymatoceras elegans (93.9, 89.3); Cymatoceras patens (70.6, 66); Czekanowskia (247.2, 100.5); Danaea (307, 2.588); Danubisphinctes (145, 139.8); Daspletosaurus (72.1, 66); Daspletosaurus torosus (72.1, 70.6); Dastilbe (113, 109); Dastilbe elongatus (112.03, 112.03); Dasyatis (129.4, 0.0117); Decodon (72.1, 0.0117); Deinonychus (129.4, 100.5); Deltadromeus (93.5, 93.5); Deltadromeus agilis (99.6, 93.5); Deltocymatoceras (93.5, 89.3); Deltocymatoceras leiotropis (93.5, 89.3); Dendrophyllia (66, 0.0117); Dendrorhynchoides (150.8, 122.46); Dentalina (268.8, 0.0117); Dercetis (70.6, 65.5); Deshayesites (125, 112); Deshayesites deshayesi (122.46, 113); Desmoceras (130, 83.5); Dichotomites (136.4, 130); Dicotylophyllum (109, 23.03); Dictyothyris (171.6, 132.9); Dictyothyropsis (161.2, 130); Diettertia (112.03, 112.03); Diettertia montanensis (112.03, 112.03); Dilong (122.46, 122.46); Disaster (161.2, 136.4); Discoides (129.4, 89.3); Discoides subuculus (100.5, 93.5); Discoscaphites (86.3, 66); Discoscaphites gulosus (70.6, 65.5); Disporella (83.5, 0.0117); Douvilleiceras (125, 112); Douvilleiceras mammillatum (125, 112); Drepanocheilus (100.5, 15.97); Dromaeosaurus (93.5, 66); Dromaeosaurus albertensis (93.5, 66); Dufrenoyia (125, 112); Dufrenoyia dufrenoyi (122.46, 112.03); Dufrenoyia furcata (125, 112); Dufrenoyia justinae (122.46, 112.03); Echinocorys (89.8, 56); Echinocorys edhemi (85.8, 65.5); Echinocorys scutata (89.3, 56); Echinocorys texanus (83.5, 70.6); Edaphodon (99.6, 3.6); Edaphodon mirificus (83.6, 61.7); Edgarosaurus (99.6, 99.6); Edmontonia (70.6, 65.5); Edmontonia longiceps (70.6, 66); Edmontonia rugosidens (72.1, 66); Edmontosaurus (72.1, 66); Edmontosaurus annectens (72.1, 66); Einiosaurus (72.1, 72.1); Einiosaurus procurvicornis (72.1, 72.1); Elasmosaurus (83.5, 70.6); Elasmosaurus platyurus (70.6, 70.6); Elatocladus (251.2, 66); Enchodus (112, 55.8); Enchodus lewesiensis (93.5, 89.3); Enoploclytia leachii (93.5, 70.6); Entolium (99.6, 0); Entolium membranaceum (99.6, 85.8); Entolium orbiculare (99.6, 93.5); Eocallista (164.7, 112); Eocallista brongniarti (155.7, 136.4); Eoguttulina (203.6, 99.6); Eothoracosaurus (66, 66); Eothoracosaurus mississippiensis (70.6, 65.5); Epiphaxum (105.3, 15.97); Equisetites (272.3, 66); Equisetum cascadensis (112.03, 112.03); Eryma (190.8, 66); Estheria (382.7, 100.5); Etea (89.8, 47.8); Eubiodectes (93.9, 93.9); Eubiodectes libanicus (99.6, 93.5); Eubostrychoceras (89.8, 70.6); Eucalycoceras (99.6, 93.5); Eucalycoceras pentagonum (99.6, 93.5); Euhoplites (105.3, 93.9); Euomphaloceras (99.6, 93.5); Euomphaloceras euomphalum (99.6, 93.5); Euomphaloceras septemseriatum (99.6, 93.5); Euoplocephalus (72.1, 66); Euoplocephalus tutus (83.5, 70.6); Euspira halli (72.1, 56); Eutrephoceras (167.7, 28.4); Eutrephoceras dekayi (70.6, 61.6); Eutrephoceras sublaevigatum (93.5, 65.5); Evactinopora radiata (359.2, 65.5); Exiteloceras (89.8, 66); Fagesia (93.5, 89.3); Fagesia catinus (93.5, 89.3); Forbesiceras (99.6, 93.5); Forbesiceras bicarinatum (99.6, 93.5); Forbesiceras largilliertianum (99.6, 93.5); Franconites (145, 139.8); Frenelopsis (150.8, 66); Galeodea (93.9, 0.126); Galeola (72.1, 70.6); Galeorhinus (72.1, 0.0117); Galerites (70.6, 66); Ganopristis (70.6, 66); Ganopristis leptodon (70.6, 66); Gaudryceras (105.3, 66); Gauthiericeras (89.3, 85.8); Gauthiericeras margae (89.3, 85.8); Geinitzaster (99.6, 93.5); Geinitzaster decoratus (99.6, 93.5); Gemmula (66, 0.0117); Gervillia (305.9, 38); Gervilliopsis (99.6, 61.7); Gervilliopsis ensiformis (72.1, 61.7); Giganotosaurus (93.5, 93.5); Giganotosaurus carolinii (99.6, 93.5); Ginkgo (251.2, 33.9); Ginkgo pluripartita (125, 100.5); Ginkgoites (295, 5.333); Gleichenites (242, 66); Glishades (72.1, 72.1); Glishades ericksoni (72.1, 72.1); Globator (125.45, 66); Globidens (83.5, 65.5); Globidens alabamaensis (83.5, 70.6); Globigerina (166.1, 0.0117); Globorotalia (129.4, 0.0117); Glochiceras (157.3, 139.8); Glomerula (265.1, 56); Glyphea (112, 89.3); Glyphopneustes (99.6, 65.5); Glyptostrobus (70.6, 0); Glyptoxoceras (99.6, 66); Gomphaeschna (125, 12.7); Goniocora (183, 125); Goniolina (130, 125); Goniopholis (164.7, 72.1); Gonioteuthis (83.5, 70.6); Gorgosaurus (72.1, 66); Gorgosaurus libratus (72.1, 70.6); Graculavus (66, 61.7); Grewiopsis (66, 66); Gronausaurus (140.2, 140.2); Gronausaurus wegneri (140.2, 140.2); Gryphaea (232, 33.9); Gryphaeostrea (132.9, 15.97); Gryphaeostrea vomer (72.1, 37.2); Gryposaurus (70.6, 66); Gryposaurus latidens (70.6, 70.6); Guettardiscyphia (99.6, 89.3); Guettardiscyphia roemeri (89.3, 89.3); Guettardiscyphia stellata (113, 70.6); Gyrodes (136.4, 37.2); Gyrodus (201.3, 93.5); Habrosaurus (83.5, 58.7); Habrosaurus dilatus (70.6, 58.7); Hadranderaster (99.6, 93.5); Hadranderaster simplex (99.6, 93.5); Hadrosaurus (72.1, 66); Hadrosaurus foulkii (83.5, 70.6); Hallirhoa (72.1, 70.6); Hallirhoa fusiformis (70.6, 70.6); Hamites (125, 66); Hamites attenuatus (109, 99.6); Hauericeras (89.3, 65.5); Hauericeras pseudogardeni (83.5, 70.6); Haustator (99.6, 0.0117); Helcion (155.7, 0.0117); Hemiaster (112.03, 11.608); Hemicidaris (189.6, 112); Hemipneustes (66, 61.6); Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (66, 61.6); Hemipristis (201.3, 0.0117); Hercoglossa (99.6, 33.9); Heteraster (129.4, 93.5); Heterodontus (235, 0.0117); Heterostinia (155.7, 65.5); Hexanchus (182.7, 2.588); Hibolites (161.2, 112); Hinnites (232, 0.126); Hippurites (93.9, 66); Holaster (132.9, 56); Holectypus (168.3, 89.3); Holophagus (247.2, 125.45); Homoeorhynchia (242, 129.4); Hoplopteryx (93.5, 70.6); Hoplopteryx lewesiensis (99.6, 89.3); Hoploscaphites (83.6, 66); Hoploscaphites constrictus (66, 66); Hyala (70.6, 1.806); Hybodus (294.6, 65.5); Hybonoticeras (152.1, 139.8); Hydrotherosaurus (66, 66); Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae (70.6, 65.5); Hylaeoneura (122.46, 122.46); Hylaeoneura lignei (122.46, 122.46); Hyotissa (89.3, 0.0117); Hypacanthoplites (113, 89.3); Hypacrosaurus (72.1, 66); Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (72.1, 70.6); Hyphalosaurus (122.46, 113); Hyphalosaurus lingyuanensis (122.46, 113); Hyphantoceras (93.5, 83.5); Hyphantoceras reussianum (93.5, 83.5); Hyphoplites (112, 93.5); Hyphoplites curvatus (99.6, 93.5); Hyphoplites falcatus (112, 93.5); Hyposaurus (72.1, 55.8); Hyposaurus rogersii (72.1, 61.6); Hypotodus (72.1, 37.2); Hypoturrilites (93.9, 93.5); Hypoturrilites gravesianus (93.9, 93.5); Hypsilophodon (139.8, 100.5); Hypsilophodon foxii (125.45, 122.46); Ichthyosaurus (215.56, 112.03); Idiohamites (112, 93.5); Idiohamites alternatus (99.6, 93.5); Idoceras (155.7, 140.2); Iguanodon (152.1, 66); Iguanodon bernissartensis (140.2, 112); Infulaster (89.3, 89.3); Inoceramus (189.6, 65.5); Inoceramus anglicus (112, 93.5); Inoceramus crippsi (100.5, 89.3); Inoceramus hoppenstedtensis (89.3, 89.3); Inoceramus lamarcki (93.5, 66); Inoceramus pictus (99.6, 89.3); Ischyodus (166.1, 3.6); Ischyrhiza (89.8, 56); Ischyrhiza mira (89.8, 56); Ismenia (157.3, 125); Ismenia pectunculoides (152.1, 139.8); Isognomon (252.17, 0.0117); Isurus (93.5, 0.0117); Jeletzkytes (72.1, 66); Jeletzkytes nebrascensis (70.6, 65.5); Jeletzkytes spedeni (70.6, 65.5); Judithemys (70.6, 55.8); Juralina (157.3, 125); Kamerunoceras (93.9, 89.3); Khaan (72.1, 72.1); Khaan mckennai (83.5, 70.6); Klukia (174.1, 112.03); Klukia canadensis (125, 112.03); Kosmoceras (163.5, 132.9); Lacunosella (155.7, 136.4); Lamellaptychus (161.2, 100.5); Lamna (130, 0.0117); Lampadocorys (70.6, 70.6); Lampadocorys cotteaui (70.6, 65.5); Lampadocorys sulcatus (99.6, 93.5); Laocoetis (155.7, 15.97); Latiastrea (163.5, 72.1); Latiphyllia (168.3, 70.6); Latiphyllia suevica (155.7, 136.4); Laurophyllum (93.5, 0.126); Laurus (99.6, 0.781); Lecointriceras fleuriausianum (89.3, 89.3); Leidyosuchus (72.1, 63.3); Leidyosuchus canadensis (70.6, 70.6); Leiostracosia (125, 66); Leiostracosia angustata (89.8, 66); Lemencia (150.8, 139.8); Lepidospongia (86.3, 66); Lepidospongia rugosa (70.6, 65.5); Lepidotes (242, 66); Lepidotus haydeni (70.6, 70.6); Lepidotus occidentalis (85.8, 70.6); Lepisosteus occidentalis (72.1, 50.3); Leptacodon (66, 47.8); Leptoceratops (66, 66); Leptoceratops gracilis (66, 66); Leptolepides (245, 112); Leptorhynchos (72.1, 70.6); Leptorhynchos elegans (70.6, 70.6); Lewesiceras (93.5, 66); Lewesiceras mantelli (93.5, 89.3); Lewesiceras peramplum (93.5, 89.3); Leymeriella (113, 93.5); Liaoningosaurus (122.46, 122.46); Liaoningosaurus paradoxus (122.46, 122.46); Limatula decussata (66, 66); Limea (242, 0.126); Lingula (515, 0); Lingulina (254.17, 11.608); Liostrea (237, 37); Liquidambar (93.9, 0.0117); Lisserpeton (70.6, 56.8); Lisserpeton bairdi (70.6, 56.8); Lissodus (346.7, 66); Lonchodytes (66, 66); Lonchodytes estesi (66, 66); Lophidiaster (164.7, 47.8); Lophidiaster ornatus (109, 83.5); Lophidiaster scupini (93.5, 85.8); Lunulites (100.5, 2.588); Lycoptera (174.1, 100.5); Lycoptera davidi (125, 113); Lyropecten (70.6, 0.0117); Lyropecten acuteplicatus (70.6, 65.5); Lytoceras (189.6, 99.6); Mactromya (249.7, 112); Magadiceramus (85.8, 83.5); Magnolia (100.5, 0.0117); Magnosia (166.1, 113); Maiasaura (83.6, 70.6); Maiasaura peeblesorum (72.1, 70.6); Malawisaurus (113, 113); Malawisaurus dixeyi (125, 112); Mammites (99.6, 89.3); Mammites nodosoides (93.5, 89.3); Manfredaster (99.6, 85.8); Manfredaster bulbiferus (93.5, 65.5); Manfredaster cariniferus (99.6, 65.5); Manfredaster praebulbiferus (99.6, 85.8); Mantelliceras (99.6, 93.5); Mantelliceras dixoni (99.6, 93.5); Mantelliceras mantelli (99.6, 93.5); Mantelliceras saxbii (99.6, 93.5); Mantellisaurus (139.8, 113); Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis (139.8, 113); Mapusaurus (89.8, 89.8); Mapusaurus roseae (89.8, 89.8); Mariella (112, 93.5); Mariella dorsetensis (99.6, 93.5); Marmarthia (66, 66); Marmarthia johnsonii (66, 66); Mecochirus (189.6, 130); Medusaceratops (70.6, 70.6); Medusaceratops lokii (70.6, 70.6); Megalosaurus (201.3, 66); Megathiris (66, 0.781); Melanopsis (66, 0.0117); Merklinia (99.6, 0.0117); Merklinia aspera (89.3, 0.0117); Mesalia (129.4, 0.0117); Mesodma (93.5, 56.8); Mesodma garfieldensis (70.6, 63.3); Mesopuzosia (93.9, 72.1); Mesopuzosia densicostata (72.1, 72.1); Mesopuzosia indopacifica (89.3, 86.3); Mesopuzosia intermedia (93.9, 89.3); Metasequoia (93.5, 2.588); Metoicoceras (99.6, 93.5); Metoicoceras geslinianum (99.6, 93.5); Metopaster (93.5, 47.8); Metopaster parkinsoni (99.6, 89.3); Metopaster thoracifer (99.6, 93.5); Micraster (93.5, 56); Microphyllia (189.6, 70.6); Millerocaulis (113, 113); Mimachlamys denticulata (66, 66); Mochlodon (83.6, 66); Mochlodon suessi (83.5, 70.6); Mochlodon vorosi (70.6, 65.5); Modestella (109, 93.5); Modestella geinitzi (93.9, 93.5); Modiolus (411.2, 0); Modiolus reversus (99.6, 93.5); Moltkia (93.5, 27.3); Moltkia minuta (66, 61.6); Montanazhdarcho (72.1, 72.1); Montanazhdarcho minor (72.1, 72.1); Monticlarella (161.2, 89.3); Montlivaltia (245, 2.588); Mortoniceras (109, 70.6); Mosasaurus (93.5, 65.5); Mosasaurus beaugei (66, 66); Mosasaurus hoffmanni (70.6, 65.5); Muniericeras (83.6, 72.1); Myledaphus (89.3, 56.8); Myledaphus bipartitus (72.1, 66); Myliobatis (72.1, 0.0117); Myopholas (183, 99.6); Myophorella (183, 122.46); Mytiloides (99.6, 65.5); Mytiloides hattini (99.6, 89.3); Mytiloides hercynicus (93.5, 89.3); Mytiloides labiatus (93.5, 0); Mytiloides mytiloides (93.5, 66); Nanogyra (189.6, 136.4); Nanogyra nana (167.7, 136.4); Nautilus (294.6, 0); Nebrius (66, 5.333); Neithea (144.5, 65.5); Neithea aequicostata (99.6, 93.5); Neithea notabilis (99.6, 93.5); Neithea quinquecostata (99.6, 85.8); Neithea regularis (93.5, 85.8); Neocardioceras (99.6, 93.5); Neocardioceras juddii (99.6, 93.5); Neochetoceras (155.7, 139.8); Neocomiceramus (140.2, 100.5); Neocomites (144.5, 136.4); Neocomites neocomiensis (140.2, 136.4); Neohibolites (113, 93.5); Neoliothyrina (99.6, 61.7); Neoliothyrina biblicata (99.6, 93.5); Neoplagiaulax (66, 55.8); Neoptychites (89.8, 86.3); Neoptychites cephalotus (89.8, 89.3); Nephrops (100.5, 0.0117); Nerinea (183, 70.6); Neurankylus (83.5, 61.7); Nichollssaura (100.5, 100.5); Nichollssaura borealis (112, 99.6); Nicklesia (130, 125); Nicklesia dumasiana (125, 125); Nielsenicrinus (83.6, 59.2); Nilssoniopteris (228, 139.8); Nomingia (66, 66); Nostoceras (99.6, 65.5); Nostoceras (Bostrychoceras) polyplocum (83.5, 70.6); Notidanus (152.1, 5.333); Nucleata (183, 99.6); Nucleata nucleata (157.3, 139.8); Nucleolites (168.3, 0.781); Nymphaster (93.5, 85.8); Nymphaster albensis (93.5, 85.8); Nyssa (66, 0.0117); Odontaspis (132.9, 0.0117); Odontaspis macrota (72.1, 4.9); Olcostephanus (140.2, 130); Olcostephanus astierianus (140.2, 136.4); Onchopristis (112, 70.6); Onchopristis numidus (100.5, 93.5); Onychocella (89.3, 0.781); Oolopygus (93.5, 66); Ophioderma (252.17, 66); Ophiopsis (242, 113); Ophiopsis penicillata (139.8, 139.8); Ophiura (201.3, 0.0117); Opisthotriton (83.5, 55.8); Opisthotriton kayi (72.1, 56.8); Orbirhynchia mantelliana (93.9, 93.5); Oreaster perforatus (99.6, 93.5); Oreaster simplex (99.6, 93.5); Oreaster thoracifer (99.6, 93.5); Ornithella (228, 100.5); Orodromeus (83.6, 66); Orodromeus makelai (72.1, 66); Orthacanthus (315.2, 66); Orthacodus (201.3, 55.8); Orthaster alievi (83.5, 65.5); Oshunia (109, 100.5); Osmeroides (99.6, 89.3); Osmeroides lewesiensis (93.5, 89.3); Osmunda (189.6, 0.781); Osteopygis (66, 33.9); Osteopygis emarginatus (66, 55.8); Otozamites (247.2, 100.5); Oviraptor (83.5, 70.6); Oviraptor philoceratops (83.5, 70.6); Oxyteuthis (132.9, 125); Pachycephalosaurus (70.6, 66); Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (70.6, 66); Pachydiscus (83.5, 65.5); Pachydiscus wittekindi (83.5, 70.6); Pachypteris (247.2, 93.9); Pachyrhizodus (99.6, 61.7); Pagiophyllum (272.3, 83.6); Palaeocypraea (145, 28.1); Palaeogaleus (70.6, 50.3); Palaeohypotodus (66, 23.03); Palaeonucula (318.1, 100.5); Palaeorhincodon (171.6, 37.2); Palintropus (70.6, 70.6); Palmoxylon (72.1, 5.333); Panorpidium (201.3, 113); Paracimexomys (109, 66); Paracimexomys judithae (70.6, 70.6); Paracrioceras (125, 125); Paracrioceras barremense (125, 125); Paracrioceras elegans (130, 125); Paracycloseris (113, 33.9); Paracymatoceras (145, 56); Paraelops (113, 100.5); Paraelops cearensis (113, 113); Paralbula (93.5, 40.4); Paralbula casei (93.5, 47.8); Paralititan (93.9, 93.9); Paralititan stromeri (99.6, 93.5); Paranomotodon (93.5, 66); Paranomotodon angustidens (99.6, 89.3); Paranymphaea (70.6, 55.8); Parapuzosia (93.9, 70.6); Parapuzosia seppenradensis (99.6, 65.5); Parasaurolophus (70.6, 70.6); Parasmilia (145, 7.246); Paratexanites (89.3, 83.5); Paratexanites emscheris (89.3, 85.8); Paronychodon (152.1, 66); Pavlovia (150.8, 99.6); Pecopteris (323.2, 11.1); Peltochelys (152.1, 122.46); Peltochelys duchastelii (155.7, 125); Pentaceratops (70.6, 65.5); Pentaceratops sternbergii (70.6, 66); Pentacrinites (242, 33.9); Pentacrinus cenomanse (99.6, 89.3); Periaster (99.6, 93.5); Perissoptera (125, 56); Perna (196.5, 0.0117); Peroniceras (182, 83.5); Peronidella (272.3, 61.6); Perotrochus (171.6, 0.781); Pholadomya (155.7, 0); Pholidophorus (245, 125); Phyllites (228, 0.0117); Phylloceras (228, 66); Phymechinus (155.7, 66); Phymotaxis (66, 28.1); Piceoerpeton (66, 50.3); Piceoerpeton naylori (66, 66); Piksi (70.6, 70.6); Piksi barbarulna (70.6, 70.6); Pinna (345.3, 0); Pinna cottai (99.6, 85.8); Pinna cretacea (99.6, 85.8); Pinna decussata (93.9, 66); Pirenella (83.5, 0.0117); Pistacia (66, 0.0117); Placenticeras (99.6, 66); Placenticeras memoriaschloenbachi (99.6, 89.3); Placenticeras polyopsis (83.5, 83.5); Placunopsis (247.2, 61.6); Plagiostoma (290.1, 61.6); Plagiostoma hoperi (89.8, 61.6); Platanites (70.6, 61.7); Platanites marginata (70.6, 61.7); Platanophyllum (99.6, 37.2); Platanus (100.5, 0.0117); Platecarpus (89.3, 65.5); Platychonia (164.7, 41.3); Platylenticeras (140.2, 136.4); Platylenticeras heteropleurum (140.2, 136.4); Platylenticeras latum (140.2, 136.4); Plegiocidaris (171.6, 112); Plesiosaurus (201.3, 66); Pleuromya (251, 65.5); Pleurotomaria (468.1, 11.6); Pleurotomaria plauensis (99.6, 89.3); Plinthosella (113, 23.03); Plinthosella squamosa (99.6, 65.5); Podozamites (272.3, 66); Polyacrodus (279.3, 70.6); Polydiadema (167.7, 93.5); Polyplectus (182, 129.4); Porosphaera (157.3, 61.6); Porosphaera globularis (93.5, 61.6); Posidonia (411.2, 99.6); Potamornis (66, 66); Potamornis skutchi (66, 66); Praeactinocamax (93.5, 93.5); Praeactinocamax plenus (99.6, 93.5); Prenoceratops (72.1, 70.6); Prenoceratops pieganensis (72.1, 72.1); Prismatoolithus (83.6, 66); Prismatoolithus levis (72.1, 70.6); Pristiophorus (83.6, 2.588); Pristis (155.7, 0.3); Procerberus (66, 61.7); Prodesmodon (70.6, 63.3); Prodesmodon copei (70.6, 63.3); Prognathodon (93.9, 61.6); Prognathodon giganteus (70.6, 66); Prolyelliceras (112, 99.6); Prolyelliceras prorsocurvatum (112, 99.6); Prosaurolophus (72.1, 66); Prosaurolophus blackfeetensis (72.1, 70.6); Protacanthoceras (99.6, 93.5); Protacanthoceras bunburianum (99.6, 93.5); Protacanthoceras tuberculatum (99.6, 93.5); Protarchaeopteryx (122.46, 122.46); Protarchaeopteryx robusta (122.46, 122.46); Protocallianassa (125.45, 41.3); Protochelydra (70.6, 50.3); Protocupressinoxylon (155.7, 125); Protocypraea (105.3, 59.2); Protungulatum (66, 63.3); Pseudamussium (323.2, 0.781); Pseudholaster (105.3, 89.3); Pseudholaster latissimus (112, 99.6); Pseudocenoceras largilliertianum (93.9, 93.9); Pseudocidaris (189.6, 93.5); Pseudocorax (83.6, 66); Pseudocorax affinis (83.6, 66); Pseudocycas (166.1, 93.5); Pseudocycas douglasii (112.03, 112.03); Pseudomelania (268.8, 23.03); Pseudophyllites (86.3, 66); Pseudophyllites latus (83.5, 66); Pseudoschloenbachia (83.6, 70.6); Pseudothurmannia (136.4, 125); Pseudothurmannia angulicostata (136.4, 130); Pseudoxybeloceras (93.5, 70.6); Pseudoxybeloceras (Parasolenoceras) interruptum (83.5, 70.6); Pseudoxybeloceras (Parasolenoceras) splendens (83.5, 70.6); Pterodactylus (196.5, 136.4); Pterofiltrus (122.46, 122.46); Pterofiltrus qiui (122.46, 122.46); Pterophyllum (295.5, 93.9); Ptilophyllum (208.5, 28.4); Ptychodus (93.5, 7.246); Ptychodus anonymus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus concentricus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus connellyi (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus deccurens (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus elevatus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus latissimus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus mammillaris (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus marginalis (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus mortoni (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus occidentalis (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus oweni (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus polygyrus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus rugosus (99.6, 65.5); Ptychodus whipplei (99.6, 65.5); Ptycholepis (242, 139.8); Puebloites (93.5, 89.3); Puebloites greenhornensis (93.5, 89.3); Puzosia (125.45, 70.6); Pycnodonte (132.9, 0.781); Pycnodonte vesicularis (93.5, 61.7); Pycnodus (99.6, 37); Pycnodus scrobiculatus (99.6, 89.3); Pygaster (171.6, 93.5); Pygopyrina (132.9, 61.6); Pygopyrina pusilla (99.6, 93.5); Pygurus (164.7, 93.5); Pyrgopolon(Pyrgopolon)septemsulcata (99.6, 0); Pyrgotrochus (183, 132.9); Pyrina (112, 89.3); Pyrina desmoulinsi (99.6, 93.5); Pyropsis (93.5, 47.8); Quenstedtoceras (163.5, 113); Radiolites (113, 66); Radiolites saxoniae (99.6, 93.5); Rastellum (161.2, 65.5); Rastellum carinatum (99.6, 89.3); Rastellum diluvianum (99.6, 93.5); Rebbachisaurus (93.9, 93.5); Rebbachisaurus garasbae (93.9, 93.5); Rhabdocidaris (232, 15.97); Rhamnus (66, 0.781); Rhinobatos (145, 0.0117); Rhinoptera (66, 2.588); Rhombodus (72.1, 56); Rhombodus binkhorsti (70.6, 66); Rhombodus laevis (72.1, 61.7); Rhynchocerithium (212, 99.6); Rhynchodercetis (93.9, 83.6); Rhynchodercetis gracilis (99.6, 93.5); Rhynchonella (457.5, 61.6); Rhynchostreon (140.2, 83.5); Rhynchostreon suborbiculatum (99.6, 83.6); Richardoestesia (152.1, 66); Richardoestesia gilmorei (150.8, 66); Romaniceras (Yubariceras) ornatissimum (93.5, 89.3); Romeosaurus (89.3, 83.5); Romeosaurus fumanensis (93.5, 85.8); Romeosaurus sorbinii (93.5, 89.3); Rubeosaurus (72.1, 72.1); Rubeosaurus ovatus (72.1, 72.1); Sabalites (70.6, 15.97); Sabella (471.8, 0); Saccocoma (247.2, 89.3); Sagenopteris (242, 93.9); Sagenopteris elliptica (145, 100.5); Sagenopteris mclearni (112.03, 100.5); Sagenopteris williamsii (130, 100.5); Salenia (130, 0); Santanadactylus (109, 109); Santanadactylus spixi (109, 109); Sapindus (72.1, 2.588); Sarcosuchus (113, 93.5); Sassafras (100.5, 2.588); Saurornitholestes (72.1, 66); Saurornitholestes langstoni (72.1, 66); Saynella (136.4, 130); Saynella clypeiformis (136.4, 130); Scapanorhynchus (99.6, 13.65); Scapanorhynchus rhaphiodon (89.8, 48.6); Scapherpeton (83.6, 56.8); Scapherpeton tectum (72.1, 56.8); Scaphites (112, 70.6); Scaphites equalis (93.9, 89.3); Scaphites inflatus (83.5, 70.6); Scaphites obliquus (93.9, 89.3); Scaphites spiniger (83.5, 70.6); Scaphites whitfieldi (89.3, 89.3); Scheenstia (152.1, 100.5); Scheenstia mantelli (140.2, 100.5); Schizophoria (436, 65.5); Schloenbachia (99.6, 93.5); Schloenbachia varians (93.9, 93.5); Scipionyx (112, 99.6); Scipionyx samniticus (109, 109); Sciponoceras (100.5, 85.8); Sciponoceras baculoides (99.6, 93.5); Sciponoceras bohemicum (89.3, 85.8); Scolosaurus (72.1, 70.6); Scutella (66, 3.6); Scyliorhinus (130, 3.6); Semenovites (100.5, 99.6); Septaliphoria (167.7, 130); Septaliphoria orbignyana (163.5, 129.4); Septaliphoria pinguis (155.7, 136.4); Sequoia (145, 2.588); Serpula (426.2, 0); Serratolamna (93.5, 50.3); Shantungosaurus (72.1, 66); Siats (93.9, 93.9); Siats meekerorum (112, 93.5); Siliquaria (232, 0.0117); Sinosauropteryx (125, 122.46); Sinosauropteryx prima (122.46, 122.46); Siphonia (113, 41.3); Smilax (66, 2.588); Solemya (423, 0.0117); Spatangus (83.5, 2.588); Spathites (93.5, 89.3); Spathites (Jeanrogericeras) pachycostatus (89.3, 89.3); Spathites revelieranus (93.5, 89.3); Sphenobaiera (295, 33.9); Sphenodiscus (70.6, 61.7); Sphenodiscus lobatus (70.6, 61.7); Sphenodus (201.3, 55.8); Sphenodus dubrisiensis (112, 99.6); Sphenopteris (383.7, 66); Spinifructus antiquus (70.6, 65.5); Spinosaurus (109, 70.6); Spinosaurus aegyptiacus (112, 93.5); Sporadopyle (164.7, 129.4); Sporadopyle obliqua (164.7, 129.4); Spyridoceramus (100.5, 66); Spyridoceramus tegulatus (70.6, 65.5); Squalicorax (112, 65.5); Squalicorax falcatus (100.5, 66); Squalicorax kaupi (83.6, 66); Squalicorax pristodontus (72.1, 61.6); Squalus (93.5, 2.588); Squatina (157.3, 0.0117); Squatina decipiens (93.5, 93.5); Squatirhina (93.5, 66); Stauranderaster (155.7, 15.97); Stauranderaster coronatus (93.5, 93.5); Stauroderma (161.2, 70.6); Stegoceras (72.1, 66); Stegoceras validum (72.1, 70.6); Stegosaurus (152.1, 100.5); Stellaster plauensis (99.6, 89.3); Stellispongia (268.8, 132.9); Steneosaurus (182, 100.5); Stoliczkaia (105.3, 93.5); Stomatosuchus (93.5, 93.5); Stomatosuchus inermis (93.5, 93.5); Stomechinus (168.3, 23.03); Streptochetus (252.17, 2.588); Struthiomimus (72.1, 66); Struthiomimus altus (72.1, 70.6); Stygimys (70.6, 61.7); Stylina (175.6, 33.9); Subprionocyclus (93.5, 89.3); Subprionocyclus branneri (93.5, 89.3); Subprionocyclus bravaisianus (93.5, 89.3); Subprionocyclus hit chinensis (93.5, 89.3); Subprionocyclus neptuni (93.5, 89.3); Subprionocyclus normalis (93.5, 89.3); Synechodus (290.1, 55.8); Taeniopteris (304.8, 89.8); Taphrosphys (72.1, 56); Taphrosphys sulcatus (66, 56); Taramelliceras (161.2, 139.8); Taxodium (145, 0.0117); Teleosaurus (182, 122.46); Telmatornis (66, 56); Telmatornis priscus (66, 56); Tempskya (100.5, 89.3); Terebella (307, 12.7); Terebratula (268.8, 0.781); Teredo (139.8, 0.0117); Tetracidaris (140.2, 136.4); Texanites (86.3, 70.6); Thaiodus (100.5, 100.5); Thamnasteria (242, 33.9); Thecosmilia (228, 37.2); Thecosmilia trichotoma (168.4, 122.46); Thescelosaurus (70.6, 66); Thescelosaurus neglectus (70.6, 66); Thomelites (99.6, 93.5); Thomelites sornayi (99.6, 93.5); Thoracosaurus (72.1, 33.9); Thoracosaurus isorhynchus (66, 66); Thoracosaurus macrorhynchus (66, 61.6); Thoracosaurus neocesariensis (72.1, 33.9); Torotix (66, 66); Torotix clemensi (66, 66); Toxaster (140.2, 99.6); Tragodesmoceras (93.9, 89.3); Trapa (70.6, 0.781); Tribodus (109, 93.5); Tribodus limae (109, 109); Triceratops (70.6, 66); Triceratops horridus (70.6, 65.5); Triceratops prorsus (66, 66); Trigonia (295.5, 56); Trigonostoma (66, 0.0117); Trochactaeon (125, 66); Trochammina (294.6, 2.588); Trochobolus (161.2, 99.6); Trochoceramus (70.6, 66); Troodon (83.6, 66); Troodon formosus (72.1, 66); Tunstallia (259.9, 113); Tunstallia helicina (259.9, 113); Tupuxuara (109, 109); Tupuxuara leonardii (109, 109); Tupuxuara longicristatus (109, 109); Turbinella (455.8, 0.0117); Turbinolia (100.5, 7.246); Turbo geinitzi (99.6, 89.3); Turbo goupilianus (99.6, 93.5); Turbo leblanci (99.6, 89.3); Turcica (164.7, 0.126); Turrilites (105.3, 66); Turrilites acutus (99.6, 93.5); Turrilites costatus (93.9, 89.8); Turrilites scheuchzerianus (99.6, 93.5); Turriscala (132.9, 1.806); Turritella vertebroides (72.1, 56); Tylasteria jurensis (175.6, 99.6); Tylocidaris (125.45, 15.97); Tylocidaris sorigneti (99.6, 89.3); Tylocidaris strombecki (99.6, 93.5); Tympanotonos (83.6, 0.0117); Typocidaris (129.4, 3.6); Typocidaris vesiculosa (99.6, 93.5); Tyrannosaurus (70.6, 66); Tyrannosaurus rex (70.6, 65.5); Valanginites (136.4, 129.4); Valettaster (164.7, 61.6); Vectocleidus (125.45, 125.45); Vectocleidus pastorum (125.45, 125.45); Velociraptor (83.6, 66); Velociraptor mongoliensis (83.5, 70.6); Velociraptor osmolskae (83.5, 70.6); Venericardia (183, 0.0117); Veniella (112.03, 48.6); Veniella conradi (72.1, 61.7); Ventriculites (145, 41.3); Ventriculites radiatus (109, 66); Verrucocoelia (183, 37.2); Viburnum (72.1, 0.0117); Vinctifer (150.8, 112); Vinctifer longirostris (125, 112); Volutilithes subsemiplicatus (93.5, 89.3); Volutoderma (93.9, 56); Volviceramus (86.3, 70.6); Volviceramus involutus (86.3, 70.6); Watinoceras (93.5, 89.3); Watinoceras coloradoense (89.8, 89.3); Xenophora (89.3, 0.0117); Xylophagella (109, 61.7); Yaguarasaurus (89.3, 85.8); Yaguarasaurus columbianus (89.3, 85.8); Yubariceras yubarense (89.8, 89.3); Yutyrannus (113, 113); Yutyrannus huali (130, 112); Zalmoxes (70.6, 66); Zalmoxes robustus (70.6, 65.5); Zalmoxes shqiperorum (70.6, 65.5); Zamites (242, 37.2); Zamites arcticus (145, 112.03); Zeilleria (359.2, 112); Zingiberopsis (66, 28.4); Ziziphus (66, 11.608); Zuercherella (113, 100.5); Zuercherella zuercheri (113, 112.03);



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