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Kalahari Manganese Field

Profile

Path to the site

Südafrika / Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz / Kalahari Manganese Field

Exposure description

Gruben (untertägig)

Geology

Mangan-Vererzungen.

Mineralienatlas short URL

https://www.mineralatlas.eu/?l=1298
Please feel free to link to this location

Shortened path specification

Kalahari Manganese Field, Nordkap, ZA
Useful for image descriptions and collection inscriptions

Important: Before entering this or any other place of discovery you should have a permission of the operator and/or owner. Likewise it is to be respected that necessary safety precautions are kept during the visit.

Additional Functions

Images from localities (6 Images total)

Rhodochrosit xx
Views (File:
1692967310
): 52
Rhodochrosit xx
Rhodochrosit xx Hotazel Südafrika BB 10 mm
Copyright: Berthold Kunz; Contribution: Mikromounter
Collection: Berthold Kunz
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field/Hotazel/Hotazel Mine
Image: 1692967310
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Rhodochrosit xx

Rhodochrosit xx Hotazel Südafrika BB 10 mm

Collection: Berthold Kunz
Copyright: Berthold Kunz
Contribution: Mikromounter 2023-08-25
Prospektionsgebiet auf der Farm Smart 314
Views (File:
1182962636
): 1896
Prospektionsgebiet auf der Farm Smart 314
Kalahari Mangan Felder
Copyright: inpart.ch; Contribution: Klinoklas
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field
Image: 1182962636
Rating: 8 (votes: 1)
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Prospektionsgebiet auf der Farm Smart 314

Kalahari Mangan Felder

Copyright: inpart.ch
Contribution: Klinoklas 2007-06-27
Smartt Mine
Views (File:
1257351854
): 559
Smartt Mine
Neuer Tagebaubetrieb in der früheren Smartt Mine
Copyright: giantcrystal; Contribution: Stefan
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field/Smartt Mine
Image: 1257351854
Rating: 9 (votes: 1)
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Smartt Mine

Neuer Tagebaubetrieb in der früheren Smartt Mine

Copyright: giantcrystal
Contribution: Stefan 2009-11-04

You find additional specimen at the Geolitho Museum

Detailed Description

Ein besonders schöner und gut ausgebildeter Sturmanit-Kristall (selten transparent) von ca. 4 mm Größe. Gefunden in N'Chwaning, Kalahari Mangan Felder, Süd Afrika

Sammlung & Foto: Christian Rewitzer

Allgemeines

Die Manganlagerstätten der Kalahari Manganese Fields (KMF) liegen südlich der Großen Kalahari-Wüste in der Northern Cape Provinz von Südafrika, ca. 60 km nordwestlich des Städtchens Kuruman und ca. 700 km südwestlich von Johannesburg. Sie erstrecken sich ost-westlich über 17 km und nord-südlich über 45 km.

Die Manganvorkommen wurden erstmals 1907 beschrieben, jedoch erst in den 1940er Jahren eingehend exploriert (wenngleich der Abbau von Mn-Erz bereits 1935-1940 in der jetzt aufgelassenen Grube Black Rock betrieben wurde). N'Chwaning wurde 1972 begonnen.

Die KMF stehen für 80 % der weltweiten hochgradigen Manganerz-Reserven, sind der weltweit größte Produzent von Mangan und decken zur Zeit ca. 20 % des Weltbedarfs.


Mineralien

Die Kalahari Manganese Fields gehören aufgrund ihrer Vielzahl seltener Mineralien sowie weltbestem Rhodochrosit, Hausmannit, Hämatit, Ettringit, Kutnohorit, Inesit, Sturmanit u.a. zu den klassischen Mineralvorkommen. Typmineralien sind Effenbergerit, Hennomartinit, Holtstamit, Kornit, N'Chwaningit, Manganvesuvianit, Poldervaartit, Sturmanit, Tweddillit, Vonbezingit.



Die einzelnen Gruben der KMF sind (in Klammern die Betreiber-Unternehmen)

  • Adams Mine
  • Black Rock Mine
  • Devon Mine
  • Gloria Mine (Assmang)
  • Hotazel Mine
  • Langdon Annex
  • Wessels Mine (Semancor)
  • Mawatman Mine (Semancor)


Mineral images (671 Images total)

Manjiroit
Views (File:
1264103093
): 1003
Manjiroit
Größe: 60x50 mm; Fundort: N'Chwaning Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, Südafrika
Copyright: Paul Bongaerts; Contribution: slugslayer
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field/Kuruman/N'Chwaning Mines (NChwaning Mines)
Mineral: Manjiroite
Image: 1264103093
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Manjiroit

Größe: 60x50 mm; Fundort: N'Chwaning Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, Südafrika

Copyright: Paul Bongaerts
Contribution: slugslayer 2010-01-21
More   MF 
Gaudefroyit
Views (File:
1091214932
): 1066
Gaudefroyit
braunschwarze Kristalle mit Baryt; Fundort: N'Chwaning II, Hozatel, Südafrika
Copyright: geni; Contribution: Mineralienatlas
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field/Kuruman/N'Chwaning Mines (NChwaning Mines)/N'Chwaning II Mine
Mineral: Gaudefroyite
Image: 1091214932
Rating: 6 (votes: 2)
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Gaudefroyit

braunschwarze Kristalle mit Baryt; Fundort: N'Chwaning II, Hozatel, Südafrika

Copyright: geni
Contribution: Mineralienatlas 2004-07-30
More   MF 
Shigait
Views (File:
1311875726
): 1013
Shigait
Größe: 16x08x03 mm; Fundort: Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari Manganfelder, Provinz Nordkap, Südafrika
Copyright: Rob Lavinsky; Contribution: slugslayer
Location: Südafrika/Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz/Kalahari Manganese Field/Hotazel/Wessel's Mine (Wessels Mine)
Mineral: Shigaite
Image: 1311875726
Rating: 7.33 (votes: 3)
License: Usage for Mineralienatlas project only
Shigait

Größe: 16x08x03 mm; Fundort: Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari Manganfelder, Provinz Nordkap, Südafrika

Copyright: Rob Lavinsky
Contribution: slugslayer 2011-07-28
More   MF 

Minerals (Count: 188)

Rocks (Count: 9)

Subsidiary Pages

External links

Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2002). Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, S Africa. Rocks & Min., Vol.77, H.2, S.94-107.

Reference- and Source indication, Literature

Literatur:

  • Du Toit, A.L. (1956): The geology of South Africa.
  • De Villiers, P.R. (1970). The geology and mineralogy of the Kalahari manganese-field north of Sishen, Cape Province. Memoir of the Geological Survey of South Africa, No. 59, 84 S.
  • S.A. Manganese Corporation SAMCOR Ltd. (1977). Kalahari Wealth, the Story of Manganese. Purnell, Cape Town, 174 S.
  • Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J. (1978): Famous mineral localities: The Kalahari Manganese Field (Cape Province, S Africa). Min.Rec.:9, S.137-153.
  • Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J. (1978). Kalahari: Die Manganerzvorkommen der Kalahari. Lapis, Jg.3, Nr.10, S.29-37.
  • Kleyenstüber, A.S.E. (1982). A review of the geology and mining of the Kalahari manganese field. In: Glen, H.W. (ed.). Proc., 12th CMMI Congress. Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg, 213–20.
  • Pienaar, H.S. (1982). Gem quality friedelite from the Kalahari manganese field near Kuruman, South Africa. Gems and Gemology, 18, 221–24.
  • Giovanoli, R. (1984). Lapis Aktuell: Manganmineralien. Lapis, Jg.9, Nr.9, S.6.
  • Hochleitner, R. (1986). Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. Lapis, Jg.11, Nr.10, S.19-24.
  • Miyano, T. and Beukes, N.J. (1987). Physicochemical environments for the formation of quartz-free manganese oxide ores from the Early Proterozoic Hotazel Formation, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Econ. Geol., 82, 706–18.
  • Miyano, T. and Beukes, N.J. (1988). Estimation of carbon dioxide fugacity and braunite II stability in quartz-free manganese oxide ores from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. South African J. Science, 84, 244–46.
  • Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D. & Cavallo, G. (1991). The Kalahari Manganese Field: An Update. Min. Rec., Vol.22, H.4, S.279-97.
  • Kleyenstüber, A.S.E. (1993). Some significant characteristics of the manganese ores and some of the minerals occurring in the Proterozoic Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Resource Geology, 17, 2–11
  • Bezing, L.v. & Gutzmer, J. (1994). Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (I). Min.-Welt, Jg.5, Nr.4, S.24-45.
  • Bezing, L.v. & Gutzmer, J. (1994). Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Min.-Welt. Jg.5, Nr.5, S.41-59.
  • Hoffmann, C. & Armbruster, T. (1995). Crystal structure of a (001) twinned sussexite Mn2B2O4(OH)2 from the Kalahari Manganese Field S Africa. Schweiz. Min. Petrogr. Mitt., 75, S.123-33.
  • Cairncross, B. and R. Dixon (1995). Minerals of South Africa.
  • Cornell, D.H. and Schütte, S.S. (1995). A volcanic-exhalative origin for the world’s largest (Kalahari) manganese field. Min. Depos., 30, 146–51.
  • Gutzmer, J. and Beukes, N.J. (1995). Fault controlled metasomatic alteration of Early Proterozoic sedimentary manganese ores in the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Econ. Geol., 90, 823–44.
  • Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J., Kleyenstüber, A.S.E. and Burger, A.M. (1995). Magnetic hausmannite from hydrothermally altered manganese ore in the Palaeoproterozoic Kalahari manganese deposit, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 59, 703–716.
  • Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doct. diss., Rand Afrikaans Univ.).
  • Gutzmer, J. and Beukes, N.J. (1996). Mineral paragenesis of the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Ore Geol. Rev., 11, 405–28.
  • Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J. and Yeh, H-W. (1997). Metasomatic and supergene fault-controlled alteration of Early Proterozoic sedimentary manganese ore at Mamatwan Mine, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. South African J. Geol., 100, 53–71.
  • Tsikos, H. and Moore, J.M. (1997). Petrography and geochemistry of the Paleoproterozoic Hotazel Iron-Manganese Formation, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa: Implications for Precambrian manganese metallogenesis. Econ. Geol., 92, 87–97.
  • Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. & Gutzmer, J. (1997): The manganese adventure - the South African manganese fields.
  • Tsikos, H. and Moore, J.M. (1998). The Kalahari manganese field: An enigmatic association of iron and manganese. South African J. Geol., 101, 287–90.
  • Lüders, V., Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J. (1999). Formation of high-grade manganese ores in the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa: Evidence from fluid inclusions studies in co-genetic iron and manganese oxides, and gangue minerals. In: Stanley et al. (ed.). Mineral Deposits: Processes to Processing. Balkema, Rotterdam, 55–58.
  • Cairncross, B. & Gutzmer, J. (2000). Spektakuläre Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis, Jg.25, Nr.10, S.13-26.
  • Gutzmer, J. and Beukes, N.J. (2000). Asbestiform manjiroite and todorokite from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. South African J. Geol., 103, 163–74.
  • Steyn, P.H.R. (2000). Changing tides: the story of ASSMANG. Associated Manganese Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg, 274 S.
  • Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2001). Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis, Jg.26, Nr.10, S.31-42.
  • Evans, D.A.D., Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J., Kirschvink, J.L. (2001). Paleomagnetic constraints on ages of mineralization in the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Econ. Geol., 96, 621–31.
  • Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2002). Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, S Africa. Rocks & Min., Vol.77, H.2, S.94-107.
  • Tsikos, H., Beukes, N.J., Moore, J.M. and Harris, C., (2003). Deposition, diagenesis and secondary enrichment of metals in the Paleoproterozoic Hotazel Iron Formation, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Econ. Geol., 98, 1149–1462.
  • Cairncross, B. and Balayer, P. (2007). Neufund: Shigait aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern, Südafrika. Lapis, 32, 23–26.
  • Gutzmer, J., Du Plooy, A.P. and Beukes, N.J. (2012). Timing of supergene enrichment of low-grade manganese ores in the Kalahari Manganese Field South Africa. Ore Geol. Rev., 47, 136-53.
  • Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. J. (2013): The Kalahari Manganese Adventure – The Adventure Continues. Random House Struik, Capetown, Rep. South Africa, 384 S.
  • Vafeas, N.A. (2016). Petrography and Geochemistry of the Hotazel Formation on Mukulu 265, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province. MSc. Diss., Univ. Johannesburg.
  • Blignaut, L. (2017). A Petrographical and Geochemical Analysis of the Upper and Lower Manganese Ore Bodies from the Kalahari Manganese Deposit, Northern Cape, South Africa – Controls on Hydrothermal Metasomatism and Metal Upgrading. PhD thesis, Dep. Geology, Univ. Johannesburg, South Africa, 348 S.
  • Vafeas, N.A., Blignaut, L.C., Viljoen, K.S. and Meffre, S. (2018). New evidence for early onset of supergene alteration along the Kalahari unconformity. South African J. Geol., 121(2), 157-70.
  • Varentsov, I.M., V.N. Kuleshov (2019). Rare Elements—Markers of the Formation Setting of Manganese and Iron Ore Deposits in the Kalahari and Postmasburg Fields (South Africa): Communication 1. Kalahari Manganese Field. Lithology and Mineral Resources, Vol.54, Issue 4, S.333–49.

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IDs

GUSID (Global unique identifier short form) LLx5Us0zNUi7kjRxCHe6Mg
GUID (Global unique identifier) 5279BC2C-33CD-4835-BB92-34710877BA32
Database ID 1298